Template:Infobox Russian city Achinsk (Russian: А́чинск) is a city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the right bank of the Chulym River near its intersection with the Trans-Siberian Railway, 184 kilometers (114 mi) west of Krasnoyarsk. Population: 109,155 (2010 Census).[1]

HistoryEdit

Achinsk is one of the oldest known inhabited places in the area. Paleontological study has shown that people lived here as early as 28,000–20,000 BCE. Some of these ancient caves are located 2 kilometers (1.2 mi) east of the city.

The modern city, however, was founded on July 25,[citation needed] 1641[2] as an ostrog on the Bely Iyus River. After the fire of 1683, it was moved to the Chulym River (a tributary of the Ob); hence, the official foundation date of the city is considered to be July 25, 1683. The name of the location derives from the Turkic tribal group Achi or Achigi. The first fort in 1683 was built with the high stockade square shaped walls. In the corners were placed watch towers. Initially the garrison had fifteen Cossacks patrolling it. In 1710, a new wooden fort on the right bank of the Achinki River was created, at its confluence with the Chulym.

In 1782, it was granted status of an uyezd town.[citation needed] In the late 19th century, the town became linked on the Trans-Siberian Railway.

Achinsk train station in 1899

Since 1990, Achinsk has been included in the official list of cities in Russia with historical and cultural value of nationwide significance.

In August 2019 a massive explosion in a military base (Russian: 60-й Инженерно-Сапёрный Берлинский Краснознамённый полк, в/ч 12202) occurred some 20 km south of the town, next to the village of Kamenka.[3]

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Achinsk serves as the administrative center of Achinsky District, even though it is not a part of it.[4] As an administrative division, it is, together with one urban-type settlement (Mazulsky), incorporated separately as the krai city of Achinsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[4] As a municipal division, the krai city of Achinsk is incorporated as Achinsk Urban Okrug.[5]

DemographicsEdit

Achinsk grew rapidly in the 20th century: from a population of 32,000 in 1939, to 85,000 in 1969, to 121,572 in the 1989 Census.[6] The population declined slightly in the early 21st century: 118,744 (2002 Census)[7] and 109,155 (2010 Census).[1]

EconomyEdit

The economy of Achinsk is based around heavy industry and contains a refinery and also produces construction materials, including wood, asphalt, cement. Mechanical, wax, brick and electrical plants are also present. It is also involved with the food industry and contains dairy factories and a meat processing plant as well as footwear and furniture factories.

The largest enterprise of the city, the Achinsk Alumina Plant, belongs to the "Rusal" group. In addition, the city operates a cement plant which produces about two million tons of cement per year.

TransportationEdit

The city operates buses, trams, and taxis, and is served by the Achinsk Airport.

Culture and educationEdit

As of 2006, Achinsk has eleven health facilities and over twenty schools. Notable landmarks include the Achinsk Drama Theater, Achinsk National History Museum, Achinsk Museum and Exhibition Center, and the Kazan Cathedral.

ClimateEdit

Achinsk has a chilly continental climate (Köppen Dfb) or a slightly warmer subarctic climate (borderline Dfc), just like its neighbouring cities in southern Krasnoyarsk Krai. Winter is moderately cold, just like Siberia, however some ludicrous temperatures of almost minus sixty has been recorded in January 1931. Summer is mildly hot, maybe a little chilly.

Climate data for Achinsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
6.0
(42.8)
16.5
(61.7)
28.1
(82.6)
34.8
(94.6)
35.3
(95.5)
37.2
(99.0)
34.1
(93.4)
31.0
(87.8)
24.2
(75.6)
13.8
(56.8)
6.1
(43.0)
37.2
(99.0)
Average high °C (°F) −11.5
(11.3)
−8.7
(16.3)
−1.4
(29.5)
6.7
(44.1)
16.6
(61.9)
21.8
(71.2)
24.3
(75.7)
21.5
(70.7)
14.2
(57.6)
5.9
(42.6)
−4.1
(24.6)
−9.6
(14.7)
6.3
(43.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −15.1
(4.8)
−12.8
(9.0)
−5.9
(21.4)
1.6
(34.9)
10.4
(50.7)
15.9
(60.6)
18.8
(65.8)
15.9
(60.6)
9.2
(48.6)
1.9
(35.4)
−7.5
(18.5)
−13.2
(8.2)
1.6
(34.9)
Average low °C (°F) −18.4
(−1.1)
−16.4
(2.5)
−9.9
(14.2)
−2.5
(27.5)
5.2
(41.4)
10.9
(51.6)
13.8
(56.8)
11.3
(52.3)
5.3
(41.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
−10.6
(12.9)
−16.6
(2.1)
−2.4
(27.7)
Record low °C (°F) −59.9
(−75.8)
−45.4
(−49.7)
−42.1
(−43.8)
−27.9
(−18.2)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−3.8
(25.2)
−.5
(31.1)
−2.8
(27.0)
−10
(14)
−34.1
(−29.4)
−45.8
(−50.4)
−48.3
(−54.9)
−59.9
(−75.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 19
(0.7)
11
(0.4)
14
(0.6)
28
(1.1)
37
(1.5)
65
(2.6)
65
(2.6)
69
(2.7)
49
(1.9)
41
(1.6)
34
(1.3)
28
(1.1)
459
(18.1)
Source: ПОГОДА В АЧИНСКЕ[8]

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  2. Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 31. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  3. [1]
  4. 4.0 4.1 Law #10-4765
  5. Law #13-3125
  6. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  7. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  8. http://www.pogodaiklimat.ru/climate/29467.htm

SourcesEdit

Template:Krasnoyarsk Krai

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