Abdulaziz bin Muhammad
Died12 November 1803
Noble familyHouse of Saud
Issue
FatherMuhammad bin Saud

Abdulaziz bin Muhammad Al Saud (Arabic: عبد العزيز الأول بن محمد بن سعود‎) (died November 1803) was the second ruler of the First Saudi State and the eldest son of Muhammad bin Saud.[1] He was also the son-in-law of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab. Abdulaziz ruled the First Saudi State from 1765 until 1803.[2][3]

KingshipEdit

Before the death of his father Abdulaziz bin Muhammad was announced the ruler of the state at the request of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab.[1] Although his father was titled as Emir, Abdulaziz bin Muhammed was given the titles of both Emir and Imam.[1] The latter title was a reflection of his religious education by Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab.[1]

In 1795 Riyadh was captured and became part of the First Saudi State.[3] This victory allowed the Al Sauds to rule all of Najd. Their military success and orthodox approach to religion won them great support in the area. Their standing was also boosted by Abdulaziz's practice of holding open meetings where tribal elders could meet with him, allowing access to their ruler.

The expansion continued with the capture of Al Hasa and Qatif where Shiites were dominant.[4] In 1802 Taif was captured, and the people living there were slaughtered.[5] In 1803 Mecca was taken by Abdulaziz's forces, and the religious figures in the city declared their alliance to Wahhabis.[5]

During his reign Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab was his major advisor and dealt with all major activities, including treasury.[1] However, following the capture of Riyadh Abdulaziz bin Muhammad himself began to control the budget of the state due to the significant increase in revenues.[1]

Sack of KarbalaEdit

In 1801 the Emirate of Diriyah (First Saudi state) under his rule attacked Karbala and Najaf in Iraq. They massacred thousands of the Shia population, stole enough precious loot to load 4,000 camels, and destroyed the dome over the tomb of Husayn ibn Ali.[6]

Personal life and deathEdit

Abdulaziz married to the daughter of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab and the daughter of Uthman bin Mu'ammar, the ruler of Uyayna.[3]

Shortly after his capture of Mecca Abdulaziz returned to Dir'aiyah where he was assassinated by a Persian man who was a darwish when Abdulaziz was leading Asr Salat in the mosque of Turayf in November 1803.[3][5][7] He was succeeded by his son, Saud.[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Alejandra Galindo Marines (2001). "The relationship between the ulama and the government in the contemporary Saudi Arabian Kingdom: an interdependent relationship?" (PhD Thesis). Durham University. p. 88.
  2. 2.0 2.1 J. E. Peterson (2003). Historical Dictionary of Saudi Arabia (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 16.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Parvaiz Ahmad Khanday (2009). "A Critical Analysis of the Religio-Political Conditions of Modern Saudi Arabia" (PhD Thesis). Aligarh Muslim University. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  4. Nadav Safran (2018). "The Rise and Fall of the First Two Realms". Saudi Arabia: The Ceaseless Quest for Security. Cornell University Press. p. 10.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Nadav Safran (2018). "The Rise and Fall of the First Two Realms". Saudi Arabia: The Ceaseless Quest for Security. Cornell University Press. p. 12.
  6. Sayed Khatab (2011). Understanding Islamic Fundamentalism: The Theological and Ideological Basis of Al-Qa'ida's Political Tactics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9789774164996.
  7. Jerald L. Thompson (December 1981). "H. St. John Philby, Ibn Saud and Palestine" (MA Thesis). University of Kansas. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
Preceded by
Muhammad bin Saud
Imam of First Saudi State
1765–1803
Succeeded by
Saud bin Abdulaziz

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