This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (March 2020) Click [show] for important translation instructions.

COVID19 pandemic in France  

Deaths per 100,000 residents by department  
Regions of France with number of people hospitalised early May
Hospitalised 1~9
Hospitalised 10~99
Hospitalised 100~499
Hospitalised 500~999
Hospitalised 1000~9999
Hospitalised ≥10000  
Disease  COVID19 
Virus strain  SARSCoV2 
Location  France 
First outbreak  Wuhan, Hubei, China 
Index case  Bordeaux 
Arrival date  24 January 2020 (1 year, 3 months, 2 weeks and 5 days) 
Confirmed cases  218,536^{[1]}^{[2]} 
Hospitalized cases  103,825^{[1]}^{[2]} 
Recovered  80,472^{[3]}^{[2]} 
Deaths  30,410 (total)^{[3]} 19,579 (hospital)^{[3]} 10,541 (care homes)^{[3]}^{[2]} 
Fatality rate  17.38% 
Government website  
Public Health France 
The COVID19 pandemic in France is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2). The virus was confirmed to have reached France on 24 January 2020, when the first COVID19 case in both Europe and France was identified in Bordeaux. The first five confirmed cases were all individuals who had recently arrived from China.^{[4]}^{[5]} A Chinese tourist who was admitted to hospital in Paris on 28 January died on 14 February, making it the first COVID19 death in France as well as the first COVID19 death outside Asia.^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]} A key event in the spread of the disease across Metropolitan France as well as its overseas territories was the annual assembly of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February in Mulhouse which was attended by about 2,500 people, at least half of whom are believed to have contracted the virus.^{[10]}^{[11]} On 4 May, retroactive testing of samples in one French hospital showed that a patient was probably already infected with the virus on 27 December, almost a month before the first officially confirmed case.^{[12]}^{[13]}
On 12 March, French President Emmanuel Macron announced on public television that all schools and all universities would close from Monday 16 March until further notice. The next day, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe banned gatherings of more than 100 people, not including public transport. The following day, the prime minister ordered the closure of all nonessential public places, including restaurants, cafés, cinemas and nightclubs, effective from that midnight.^{[14]} On 16 March, Macron announced mandatory home confinement for 15 days starting at noon on 17 March.^{[15]} This was extended twice, and ended on 11 May,^{[16]} after a progressive lifting of confinement and as face masks were made available to all citizens.^{[17]}
On 2 May, Olivier Véran announced that the government would seek to extend the health emergency until 24 July.^{[18]} Many mayors opposed the 11 May lifting of the lockdown, which had been announced by the president a few weeks earlier in a televised address to the nation,^{[16]} and said it was premature. Veran's bill was discussed in Senate on 4 May.^{[19]}
As of 3 September 2020^{[update]}, France has reported 293,024 confirmed cases, 30,686 deaths, and 86,712 recoveries after hospitalization.^{[3]}
According to a team of French epidemiologists, under 5% of the total population of France, or around 2.8 million people, may have been infected with COVID19. This was believed to have been nearly twice as high in the IledeFrance and Alsace.^{[20]}
BackgroundEdit
The pandemic occurred following a series of national protests, which were followed by a strike against pension reform which had been proposed by President Emmanuel Macron in his election manifesto.^{[21]}^{[22]} The pension reform strike was the longest strike in modern French history.^{[23]} In President Emmanuel Macron's second address to the nation on the pandemic on 16 March, he announced the suspension of all reforms, notably those of pensions.^{[24]}
On 12 January, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, who had initially come to the attention of the WHO on 31 December 2019.^{[25]}^{[26]} On 21 January, Agnès Buzyn, Minister of Solidarity and Health declared that "The risk of introduction into France is low but it cannot be excluded".^{[27]}
TimelineEdit
Template:COVID19 pandemic data/France medical cases chart
First casesEdit
On 2 December, a man was admitted to Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (Colmar); on 7 May, the director of the medical imagery department claimed that the man had been positive for COVID19 in December.^{[28]} His thoracic scan, taken in December, was one of several suspicious scans identified by the hospital as being typical of COVID19, the earliest of these suspicious scans having been on 16 November.^{[29]}
On 27 December, a man was admitted to Avicenne Hospital and tested for influenza, which came back as negative. On 3 May, Yves Cohen, head of resuscitation at the hospital, said that following a retest of the man's December sample, it had come back positive for COVID19. Cohen said it was too early to know if the man had been France's "patient zero".^{[12]}^{[13]}
On 23 January, the French Minister of Health's office published an analysis of the situation,^{[30]} and on the same day Air France suspended its flights from and to Wuhan, and reduced the frequency of its flights from and to Beijing and Shanghai.^{[31]}
On 24 January, the first COVID19 case in Europe was confirmed in Bordeaux. The victim, a 48yearold French citizen from China, who arrived in France on 22 January, was hospitalised at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux. He was placed in isolation, and the authorities tried to trace people who had been in contact with him.^{[32]} On the same day that Agnès Buzyn said that "The risks of propagation of the virus in France are extremely low",^{[33]} two more cases were confirmed in Paris – a couple who had returned from China on 18 January.^{[4]}^{[34]}^{[35]} The 31yearold man and his 30yearold partner, both from Wuhan, tested positive for SARSCoV2 and were hospitalised at Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital in Paris. On 26 January, Buzyn declared that the French government had millions of masks which could be distributed to the population if necessary.^{[36]}^{[37]}
On 28 January, an 80yearold Chinese tourist from Hubei tested positive and was hospitalised at Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital.^{[6]} The following day, his 50yearold daughter tested positive and was admitted to the same hospital.^{[38]} The death of the 80yearold on 14 February marked the first death from COVID19 outside of Asia.^{[7]}
On 30 January, a Paris doctor who had come into contact with a Chinese tourist whose infection was confirmed upon her return to China was confirmed positive for COVID19.^{[39]}
On 11 March, the government named 11 prominent scientists to a committee to advise on scientific matters pertaining to the epidemic in France.^{[40]} On 17 March 2020, the Direction générale de la Santé (DGS) asked Santé publique France to buy urgently 1,1 million of FFP2 masks.^{[41]}
On 31 January, Marie Fontanel, the President counselor for solidarity and health, quit her job to help her husband in the coming municipal elections. She would be replaced only one month later.^{[42]} The same day, all the countries of the Schengen Area, except France, suspended the issuing of visas in China.^{[43]}
Les ContaminesMontjoie clusterEdit
On 8 February, thenMinister of Health Agnès Buzyn confirmed five new cases which originated from a group of people who were on a holiday in Les ContaminesMontjoie, HauteSavoie.^{[44]} They contracted the infection from a British national who had attended a conference in Singapore a few days before.^{[45]}^{[46]} Another British national, who had stayed in the same chalet as the five other individuals at Les ContaminesMontjoie, tested positive for COVID19.^{[47]} On 18 February, Minister of Health, Olivier Véran – who replaced Agnès Buzyn after she stood down to run in the Paris mayoral election for LREM – announced that only four people remained infected in France. These four, all British nationals, three from the first group of Les ContaminesMontjoie and a fourth case which was discovered later, underwent quarantine at the hospital.^{[48]} The last remaining British national was discharged six days later.^{[49]}
Sundry casesEdit
In late February, multiple cases appeared in France, notably within three new clusters, in Oise,^{[50]} HauteSavoie,^{[51]} and Morbihan.^{[52]}
On 25 February, a French teacher from CrépyenValois died;^{[53]} on the same day, a Chinese man who had returned from China was confirmed as a carrier of SARSCoV2, but showed signs of recent recovery. A 64yearold man from La BalmedeSillingy, who returned from a trip to Lombardy on 15 February, tested positive for SARSCoV2 and was treated in Centre Hospitalier AnnecyGenevois, ÉpagnyMetzTessy.^{[54]}^{[55]}^{[56]} His wife also tested positive and was admitted to the same hospital as her husband.^{[57]}^{[58]}
On 26 February, a 36yearold man, who had made multiple trips to Lombardy, tested positive and was treated in Nouvel Hôspital Civil, Strasbourg.^{[59]}^{[60]}^{[61]}^{[62]} A 60yearold French teacher from Oise was first admitted to Creil Hospital, then transferred to PitiéSalpêtrière Hospital, Paris, where he died a few hours later.^{[63]}^{[62]}^{[64]} A 55yearold man from Oise was admitted to the intensive care unit at CHU AmiensPicardie, Amiens.^{[65]}
The same day, during an audition by the French Senate, Jérôme Salomon, the French Directeur général de la Santé, declared that "A mask shortage is not a subject".^{[66]}
On 27 February, the Minister of Health Olivier Véran announced that France had 38 cases of COVID19 on its soil, with 20 new cases detected including a cluster in the Oise caused by close contacts with patients that were infected in Egypt.^{[67]}
On 28 February, one new case was confirmed, a 23yearold fashion student from Nice who had recently returned from Milan.^{[68]} Landes confirmed the first case of COVID19 in the region, a woman who tested positive at Centre Hospitalier de MontdeMarsan and underwent isolation.^{[69]}
Mulhouse clusterEdit
A religious week in Mulhouse that took place from 17 to 24 February 2020 was involved in the rapid spread of the virus to eastern France and beyond. Linked cases developed from early March in Orléans, Besançon, SaintLô, Belfort, Dijon, Mâcon, Agen, Briançon, Paris, Corsica, and French Guiana.^{[70]}^{[11]}
The annual gathering of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February in Mulhouse which was attended by about 2,500 people became a significant cluster in the spread of coronavirus in France.^{[10]} Alerted by a parishioner and by 18 family members who tested positive on 1 March, the pastor notified the health authorities.^{[11]}^{[71]} A man who lived alone in Nîmes – and who had driven back alone from Mulhouse and who otherwise had no close contacts – tested positive, and the flurry of reported cases locally on 2 March brought the existence of a Mulhouse cluster to light.^{[11]} On 3 March, seven participants in the evangelical rally – including five members of a local family and a general practitioner from Bernwiller – had tested positive for the virus.^{[72]}^{[73]}^{[74]} Starting on the evening of 3 March, the local helpline of the Emergency medical services recorded an unprecedented flood of distress calls, from people who had attended the gathering.^{[10]} According to an investigative report by Radio France, at least half of the attendees had contracted the virus; in an interview on France Info, the pastor of the church admitted that 2000 attendees may have been infected.^{[10]} It is said that no specific health advice existed in light of the threat at the time.^{[11]}^{[71]} The source of the initial infection has not been determined; furthermore, as different attendees were welcomed each day, and due to the absence of any attendance register, epidemiological followup subsequent to the discovery of attendees who tested positive was rendered impossible.^{[11]} Even President Emmanuel Macron had spent several hours electioneering on 18 February in the Bourtzwiller district close to the church. It was only on 2 March when the health authorities woke up to data that there was an outbreak all over the country linked to the religious meeting, by which time secondary infections had spread out of control.^{[11]}
A Radio France investigation identified that one nurse who had attended the event was the origin of a subsequent cluster in Strasbourg at her workplace at the Strasbourg University Hospitals involving some 250 hospital colleagues.^{[10]} Five returnees from the Mulhouse rally were confirmed in French Guiana on 4 March.^{[75]} On 5 March, a retired couple from LotetGaronne and another person from DeuxSèvres who had attended the same Mulhouse gathering were declared positive for the disease.^{[76]} Five new cases from this cluster were registered in Corsica,^{[77]} and three in Normandy.^{[78]} On 6 March, with 81 cases that had been detected in the previous 24 hours in Mulhouse, the departmental prefect declared that the means were no longer sufficient to systematically screen all suspected cases; only the most serious patients were to be hospitalised.^{[79]} The department of Haut Rhin, in which Mulhouse is situated, imposed strict limits on the gatherings; all schools were closed henceforth.^{[80]}
RepatriationsEdit
On 31 January, approximately 220 French returnees from China landed at IstresLe Tubé Air Base, aboard an Airbus A340 from Esterel 3/60 transport squadron stationed at Creil Air Base.^{[81]} These evacuees were quarantined in a holiday camp in CarryleRouet.^{[82]}^{[83]}^{[84]} A second wave of repatriation took place on 2 February when 65 evacuated French nationals on board a chartered Airbus A380800 Hi Fly landed at the Istres air base.^{[85]} A third repatriation of 38 French occurred on 8 February 2020 under the auspices of the British government.^{[86]}
On 21 February, a further thirty French people who had been staying in Wuhan were repatriated to France and placed in quarantine at Branville, in the Calvados.^{[87]}^{[88]} On 13 March, twelve trainee gendarmes at the School of Gendarmerie of Tulle (Corrèze) saw their internship in Spain terminated, with them and their 20 companions repatriated.^{[89]} They had been confined from 10 March 2020 following the positive test results of two of their Spanish cohort.^{[90]}
Municipal electionsEdit
The first round of municipal elections in France took place on 15 March 2020 against the backdrop of the government decision to move to Stage III of measures to prevent the spread of the coronavirus. Stringent restrictions on public life involving the closure of bars, restaurants and other businesses considered nonessential were set to begin the following day.^{[91]} ThenHealth Minister, Agnès Buzyn, resigned on 16 February 2020 to run for the Paris mayor for LREM.^{[92]} She is succeeded by Olivier Véran, a neurologist. The decision to press ahead with the election was justified as being critical to democratic life in the country, despite concerns about how a second round could be held as the toll of infections and deaths continued to rise.^{[91]} In the end, the turnout of registered voters was 40%, lower than achieved in 1971 – the previous record lowest turnout.^{[91]}
A number of communes in various parts of the country reported that despite the safety measures put in place by the government, some candidates and assessors had subsequently developed symptoms or tested positive for the virus.^{[93]}^{[94]}^{[95]}
Lockdown measuresEdit
On 16 March (one day after the first round of the municipal elections), Emmanuel Macron announced the beginning of a lockdown period from the 17 March at noon.^{[96]} It was initially planned for 15 days, then for 30 days, but on 13 April, he announced that the lockdown period would be extended until 11 May.^{[16]}
After the announcement of the lockdown, the Fédération Française du Bâtiment decided to stop nonessential work because of the danger for construction workers. On 19 March, Muriel Pénicaud, the French Minister of Labour, criticized this decision, saying that it showed a lack of civic spirit. On 20 March, the President of the federation replied in an open letter that what the Minister said was "scandalous".^{[97]}^{[98]} After several days, an agreement allowing a few construction sites to reopen was signed.^{[99]}
Measures enacted  Effective from 

4  14 March : First bans on gatherings  
Ban on gatherings of more than 5000 people in enclosed spaces  5 March^{[100]} 
Ban on all gatherings of more than 1000 people  10 March^{[101]} 
Ban on all gatherings of more than 100 people  14 March ^{[102]}^{[103]} 
Ban on ships carrying more than 100 passengers from calling in on or anchoring in inland and territorial waters  14 March^{[102]}^{[104]}^{[103]} 
17 March  10 May : Lockdown  
Closure of most public establishments. Only "essential services (food shops, pharmacies, banks, newsagents, petrol/service stations…) and all essential public services" are authorised to remain open.^{[105]} Citizens asked to "avoid gatherings where possible, limit meetings with friends and family, only use public transport to go to work if presence at the workplace is essential, and to only leave the home to buy essential groceries, to briefly exercise or to vote in local elections"  15 March^{[104]}^{[103]} 
Closure of schools and institutes of higher education  16 March^{[104]}^{[103]} 
Ban on all religious gatherings except for funeral services with fewer than 20 attendees  16 March^{[104]}^{[103]} 
Ban on all travel except relating to professional activity, buying essential goods, health or family reasons or brief individual exercise. Those outside the home were required to carry identification and a signed and dated declaration for any travel.  17 March^{[106]}^{[107]}^{[108]} 
Ban on embalming. All suspected or confirmed cases of death due to COVID19 were to be placed in coffins immediately.  24 March^{[103]} 
11 May  1 June: Phase 1 of lockdown lifting  
Ban on gatherings of more than 10 people in a public space across all French territory. More generally, all gatherings, meetings, activities, travel and users of public transport were required to respect social distancing rules. Public access to parks, gardens and green spaces in urban areas was prohibited in areas of France classified as 'red zones'. Most businesses could reopen but restaurants, cafes and bars remained shut. A travel declaration was no longer needed for travel outside one's place of residence. Full lockdown restrictions remained in the overseas department of Mayotte.  11 May^{[109]} 
Ban on travel outside the department of residence or exceeding a 100 km radius from one's place of residence, except in specified circumstances. Citizens were still required to carry identification, and a signed declaration, for any travel outside a 100 km radius of one's residence or for travel on public transport during peak hours. Masks were made compulsory on public transport. More generally, all gatherings, meetings, activities, travel and usage of public transport were required to respect social distancing rules. Public access to parks, gardens and green spaces in urban areas was prohibited in areas of France that are classified as 'red zones'. Full lockdown restrictions remained in the overseas department of Mayotte.  12 May^{[110]} 
Parks in red zones reopened.  30 May^{[111]} 
2  22 June  
Restaurants and museums allowed to reopen across most of France, although a ban on indoor seating in restaurants is maintained in the 'orange zones' of IledeFrance, French Guiana and Mayotte. A declaration was no longer required for travel exceeding 100 km.  2 June^{[112]} 
Demonstrations that abide by social distancing guidelines are permitted. IledeFrance becomes a 'green' zone, allowing restaurants and cafes to open fully, although French Guiana and Mayotte remain 'orange'.  15 June^{[113]} 
A declaration is no longer required to travel on public transport during rush hour.  16–21 June^{[citation needed]} 
Cinemas were reopened.  22 June ^{[114]} 
1119 July  
Majority of restrictions lifted, although a ban on gatherings of more than 5000 people remained, and nightclubs stayed closed, and masks remained obligatory on public transport. The state of emergency remained in effect in the overseas departments of French Guiana and Mayotte.  11 July ^{[115]} 
20 July  : Expansion of maskwearing rules  
Masks made mandatory in an extended range of public places.  20 July ^{[116]} 
Prefectures given powers to expand mandatory maskwearing measures  29 July 
Paris and the department of BouchesduRhône are classed as 'red' departments in which the virus is actively circulating.  13 August ^{[117]} 
19 additional departments are classed as 'red': AlpesMaritimes, Essonne, Gard, Gironde, Guadeloupe, HauteGaronne, HautsdeSeine, Hérault, Loiret, Martinique, Rhône, Sarthe, SeineetMarne, SeineSaintDenis, Vald'Oise, ValdeMarne, Var, Vaucluse and Yvelines.  27 August 
Maskwearing is made compulsory outdoors in the whole of Paris and its inner suburbs (HautsdeSeine, SeineSaintDenis and ValdeMarne).  28 August 
Situation by regionEdit
AuvergneRhôneAlpesEdit
On 25 February, a man from La BalmedeSillingy, who had returned from Italy, was declared infected and hospitalised in Annecy. He had been asymptomatic the previous evening, and so was the trigger for a cluster in HauteSavoie.^{[118]}^{[119]} One day later his wife was hospitalised.^{[58]} On 27 February, a friend and his daughter followed him into the hospital.^{[120]} On 2 March, 26 people were COVID19 positive in HauteSavoie. The hospital in Annecy being saturated, a case was transferred to Chambéry.^{[121]} François Daviet, the mayor of La BalmedeSillingy was also hospitalised.^{[122]}
On 27 February, a man from Francheville was admitted to a Lyon hospital and tested positive for coronavirus.^{[123]} Three new cases were reported in the city of Lyon on 1 March.^{[122]}
A couple from DivonnelesBains were infected after a journey in Italy and hospitalised in neighbouring Switzerland on 29 February.^{[124]}^{[125]} On the same day, two other men from FerneyVoltaire, one French national who works in Switzerland and one Italian national, were also hospitalised in the Helvetic Country.^{[126]}
On 2 March, an 89yearold woman from Nyons was treated at Valréas hospital in the Enclave of the Popes in Vaucluse and tested COVID19 positive.^{[127]} On the same day there were four new cases in HauteSavoie.^{[128]}
BurgundyFrancheComtéEdit
On 2 March 10 cases were reported at the Dijon hospital.^{[129]} The first wave was reported on 27 February with cases related to the Oise cluster^{[130]}^{[131]} who subsequently infected their relatives. Five new cases of COVID19 were confirmed on 3 March. The 15 cases in the region received care at Dijon CHU. Four cases in Côted'Or had been in contact with someone who was already hospitalised, while another case in SaôneetLoire was in Italy the previous week.^{[132]}
BrittanyEdit
On 2 March 19 cases were reported in Brittany.^{[133]} Two were in the western city of Brest, an elderly man from Plougonvelin, returning from a trip from Egypt^{[134]}^{[135]} and his wife.^{[136]} There were also four cases in the regional capital Rennes, a firefighter and his wife, and two people who had returned from Veneto.^{[133]} 13 others cases were reported in Morbihan, around a cluster of 6 in Crac'h, 3 in Auray, 3 in Carnac and 1 in SaintPhilibert.^{[133]}
Also on 2 March, the fourth death in France, and the first one in Brittany occurred, a 92yearold man, who had been hospitalised in Vannes.^{[137]}^{[138]}
As of 29 March 962 cases had been reported as follows : 208 in IlleetVilaine, 230 in Finistère, 313 in Morbihan and 107 in Côtes d'Armor.^{[139]}
Grand EstEdit
On 26 February, a 36yearold man who had made repeated trips to the Italian region of Lombardy was hospitalised in Strasbourg but didn't have severe symptoms.^{[63]}^{[61]}
On 2 March, it was announced that ten more people tested positive in the Grand Est, eight hospitalised in Strasbourg and three in Nancy. In Alsace, a Molsheim couple was hospitalised. The man had returned from Italy and was hospitalised first, followed by his wife. Four members of a family from Hésingue, a 27yearold mother and her two children aged five and one, as well as one of the grandfathers, a 57yearold man, were infected. Two others cases identified in the BasRhin, a 49yearold man and his 14yearold son, had been in contact with a person from the Oise hospitalised in Amiens.^{[140]} Three family members were hospitalised in Nancy, a father and his son, aged 50 and 23, and the girlfriend of the 50yearold patient, all from the department of Aisne.^{[141]}
HautsdeFranceEdit
As of 2 March 67 people^{[142]} were infected by COVID19 in the HautsdeFrance region. This figure, the highest in France, was linked to a major cluster originating in the city of Creil, in the Oise, whose source remains unknown. The five departments of HautsdeFrance now each had at least one proven case of people infected by the coronavirus. In Aisne and PasdeCalais, spared by the epidemic until 1 March, the authorities confirmed the presence of patients with COVID19, except the Nord where hospitalisations without local infections had taken place.^{[citation needed]} Some days before, on 26 February, a man died overnight after being rushed to a Paris hospital from Creil where he was hospitalised for 6 days in ICU in serious condition, bringing the total death toll in the country to two at that time.^{[63]}^{[62]} On 2 March, it was announced the second death in HautsdeFrance and the third at the national level, a woman of 89 "diagnosed postmortem" at the hospital of Compiègne. She had other serious preexisting conditions.^{[142]}
ÎledeFranceEdit
On 25 February, a young woman returned from China was hospitalised in the Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris but showed signs of recovery and was out of hospital on 26 February.^{[118]}^{[143]}^{[51]}
On 28 February, an infected person from the Vald'Oise, returning from Italy was hospitalised in Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris. He was working for a contractor of Charles de Gaulle Airport.^{[144]}^{[145]} On the same day, Hôpital Tenon , which had received a patient from the Oise before he had been diagnosed, announced that it had been directly affected by the coronavirus with three infected medical personnel.^{[146]}
Two cases of Coronavirus had been identified in SeineSaintDenis in Montreuil in the same family, a father and his child, on 2 March.^{[147]}
Despite the coronavirus pandemic a substantial International Women's Day march occurred in Paris on 8 March.^{[148]}
NormandyEdit
On 27 February, a doctor from the Rouen University Hospital was declared a positive carrier of COVID19 and was confined to his home, after a professional journey to Munich.^{[149]} A second case of coronavirus was confirmed in Normandy on 2 March. He is a French resident in Eure. He was hospitalised at the Rouen University Hospital.^{[150]}
New AquitaineEdit
After news of the first infected individuals in Europe had been released in late January,^{[151]} three new patients were declared COVID19 positive in February, a patient in Bordeaux who was hospitalised at the Bordeaux University Hospital after returning from a stay in Italy, a soldier from Rochefort, CharenteMaritime who had had contact with people from the Creil air base in the Oise, who was hospitalised in Poitiers, and a woman from MontdeMarsan was had also been in contact with cases in Creil, who was hospitalised in Bordeaux.^{[152]}
OccitaniaEdit
Three cases were declared in Occitania in February, all in Montpellier. A man who recently returned from Italy was diagnosed on 27 February,^{[153]} followed the next day by his wife and a 41yearold man recently returned from EmiliaRomagna.^{[154]} On 1 March, the two children of the couple were hospitalised and one was COVID19 positive.^{[155]} On 2 March, two new cases were announced there: a 31yearold man and his 29yearold wife, also back from EmiliaRomagna.^{[156]} One day later, a 70yearold man from the village of BoissetetGaujac in the Gard was hospitalised in Nîmes.^{[157]}
On 2 March, a case in Nimes was traced to the midFebruary Mulhouse Megachurch event. This case helped identify the Mulhouse cluster.^{[158]}
Pays de la LoireEdit
A 58yearold female general practitioner, tested positive for coronavirus and was hospitalised on 27 February at the Nantes University Hospital. Hers was the first confirmed case in the Pays de la Loire region. She lived near Compiègne, in the Oise department, where a dozen cases had already been identified. On 13 February she had seen a patient who was later hospitalised in an intensive care unit in Amiens.^{[159]}^{[160]}
On 2 March, four people were hospitalised at the Angers University Hospital for cases of coronavirus.^{[161]} The first case was detected on 28 February; a 27yearold woman from the Sarthe declared herself to the SAMU centre 15 after a stay in Milan in Italy. Three other cases have since been detected in Mayenne and MaineetLoire. They were infected by a patient from Brest.^{[162]}
ProvenceAlpesCôte d'AzurEdit
The first case of the ProvenceAlpesCôte d'Azur region was announced on 28 February. A young woman from Cannes was infected after a journey in Milan.^{[163]} One day later three new cases were hospitalised, two French vacationers returned from a risk zone and an Italian tourist.^{[164]} Two new cases appeared during the weekend of 29 February and 1 March: a 15yearold adolescent and a 23yearold woman.^{[165]} On 2 March, a seventh case was announced, a 3yearold girl.^{[165]}
On 29 February, Monaco announced its first COVID19 case, a man who was admitted to the Princess Grace Hospital Centre, then transferred to the Nice University Hospital in France.^{[166]}
On 22 March, the AlpesMaritimes prefecture issued a decree putting into place a curfew from 10 pm to 5 am affecting cities of more than 10,000 residents and all towns on the Mediterranean coast until 31 March 2020. This replaced local measures which had already been taken in Nice, Béziers, and Cannes.^{[167]}
Overseas regionsEdit
French GuianaEdit
As of 4 March, French Guiana had five confirmed cases, all in SaintLaurent du Maroni.^{[168]} The first death was announced on 20 April 2020.^{[169]}
GuadeloupeEdit
By 26 March, there had been 84 positive cases and 1 death in Guadeloupe.^{[170]}
MartiniqueEdit
The COVID19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached the Martinique on 5 March 2020.^{[171]} By 15 March, the first virusrelated death had occurred and there were 15 infected patients in Martinique.^{[172]}
MayotteEdit
The COVID19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached Mayotte on 10 March 2020.^{[173]} On 31 March the first person died of COVID19.^{[174]}
RéunionEdit
The COVID19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached Réunion on 11 March 2020.^{[175]}
Overseas collectivitiesEdit
French PolynesiaEdit
Maina Sage, a French politician representing French Polynesia at the French national assembly, was diagnosed with the first case of COVID19 in French Polynesia on 11 March.^{[citation needed]}
New CaledoniaEdit
As of 19 March, there have been two cases in New Caledonia.^{[176]}
Saint BarthélemyEdit
A resident of the French island of Saint Barthélemy was diagnosed with COVID19 on 1 March. His parents on the neighbouring island of Saint Martin also tested positive.^{[177]}
Saint MartinEdit
A couple from the French part of Saint Martin island was diagnosed with COVID19 on 1 March. Their son, who lives on the neighbouring island of Saint Barthélemy, also tested positive.^{[177]}
Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrierEdit
The Ministry of Armed Forces reported infections on board one of its ships on 8 April 2020. After about 40 crew members aboard the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle showed symptoms, the ship cut short its mission and returned to its home port of Toulon on 12 April 11 days earlier than planned.^{[178]}^{[179]} The ministry initially announced that out of 66 personnel tested, 50 were positive.^{[180]}^{[181]} Three sailors were evacuated by air to Saint Anne Army Teaching Hospital .^{[180]}^{[182]} On 18 April, the final count of infected crew members was announced as 1,046 with nearly 50 percent diagnosed as asymptomatic.^{[183]}
The carrier arrived in Toulon on the afternoon of 12 April when a 14day quarantine for the crew began. The source of the infection remains unknown, as the last port of call had been Brest from 13 to 15 March.^{[184]}^{[185]}^{[186]}^{[187]}^{[excessive citations]}
There was criticism in France the carrier mission was not interrupted after the first cases were detected,^{[188]} and rumours that the carrier had asked permission to interrupt its mission in mid March during its stopover in Brest, which had been refused. Florence Parly, the French Minister of Armed Forces, said that these rumours were false when questioned by French deputies.^{[189]}
Effects on civilian lifeEdit
File:Paris Covid19 Avril 2020.webm
ClosuresEdit
On 28 February, the fashion designer agnès b. cancelled fashion shows in Paris Fashion Week, which had been scheduled to run until 3 March.^{[190]} The following day, the Paris half marathon scheduled for Sunday 1 March with 44,000 participants was cancelled as one of a number of measures announced by health minister Olivier Véran (which also included the banning of all indoor public gatherings of more than 5,000 people).^{[191]}
In a televised statement on 12 March, President of the Republic Emmanuel Macron decreed the closure of nurseries, schools, colleges, high schools and universities.^{[192]} The Ministry of Health requested the deprogramming of nonurgent surgical procedures.^{[192]} From the next day, gatherings of more than 100 people were prohibited.^{[193]}
On 13 March, the Ligue de Football Professionnel suspended Ligue 1 and Ligue 2 (the top two divisions of football in France) indefinitely due to health risks.^{[194]}
On 14 March, many cultural institutions announced their closure. These are mainly Parisian institutions or institutions in the Paris region, such as Louvre, Centre Georges Pompidou, Eiffel Tower, Musée d'Orsay, and Château de Versailles,^{[195]} but also institutions in the provinces such as Château de Montsoreau – Museum of Contemporary Art,^{[196]} CAPC – Musée d'Art Contemporain de Bordeaux, MUCEM in Marseille.^{[197]}
Restrictions on movementEdit
Starting from 23 March 2020,^{[198]} everyone in a public space was required to carry a selfcompleted declaration, known as an "Attestation de déplacement dérogatoire", which stated one's reasons for being out in public. Without this declaration individuals could be fined if found engaging in nonessential movement.^{[199]} Acceptable reasons for being outside included: shopping for food and essential needs, traveling to and from a place of work, if the work could not be performed at home, accessing necessary healthcare, traveling for essential family matters including childcare or care of the elderly or to assist vulnerable people, exercising within 1 km of the home for up to 1 hour during permitted hours, for an administrative legal matter (such as a summons), or at the direction of an administrative authority. Initially it was necessary to carry a paper copy of the declaration but later a QR code based electronic equivalent for smartphones became an option. Most of the requirements of these measures expired on 11 May with the expiration of the general stayathome order however new requirements subsequently came into effect limiting general travel to a range of 100 km from one's residence without a permit. The 100 km limitation remained in effect until 2 June.^{[citation needed]}
Police around the country set up road blocks to check those outside their homes had good reason and that their exemption declarations were in order. Up to 7 April, more than 8 million checks had been made, and half a million fines had been issued for failure to respect rules of confinement. Police report receiving hundreds of telephone denunciations from citizens complaining of their neighbours walking their dogs too often; a woman also denounced her husband for going out to see his mistress.^{[200]}
UnemploymentEdit
President Macron announced on 12 March that companies could postpone the payment of social security contributions and taxes due in March without justification, formalities, or penalties. An "exceptional and massive" mechanism of statefunded furloughing (partial layoffs) was envisaged.^{[192]} Employees were encouraged to practise teleworking where possible.^{[201]} During the second half of March, 4 million French workers applied for temporary unemployment benefits.^{[202]}^{[203]}^{[204]} As at April 2020, approximately 8.6 million employees in France were furloughed. The total cost of the operation for the three months from March amounts to €24 billion.^{[205]}
The French state, which has hitherto borne 100% of the costs of furloughing, reduced the indemnity to 85% from 1 June 2020, with businesses footing 15% of the bill; employees will receive 70% of their gross pay, or around 84% of their net salary. Employees in sectors of activity related to restaurants, culture and tourism, which remain subject to forced closure, continue to receive 100% state indemnity.^{[205]}
Riots in the Paris regionEdit
From 18 April, suburbs near Paris saw several nights of violent clashes over police treatment of ethnic minorities in the banlieues during the coronavirus lockdown.^{[206]}^{[207]}^{[208]}
Fatal bus attackEdit
On 5 July, a 59yearold male bus driver in Bayonne was left brain dead after being attacked by passengers who refused to pay for tickets and to wear face masks on his bus. Five people were arrested;^{[209]} two men were charged with attempted murder, two others with nonassistance to a person in danger and a fifth with attempting to hide a suspect.^{[210]}^{[211]}^{[212]} The four culprits of the attack were later revealed to have previous extensive criminal records.^{[213]}^{[214]}^{[215]}^{[216]} The driver died on 10 July, five days after the attack.^{[217]}
Shortage of masks controversyEdit
Strategic stocks of masks in 2009 under Roselyne Bachelot, minister of health from May 2007 to November 2010, amounted to 1 billion surgical masks and 600 million FFP2 masks .^{[218]} According to the French government, a change of doctrine had occurred upon recommendations from the General Health Directorate in July 2011, the decision was taken then to allow depletion of strategic stocks on the grounds of cost of maintaining the stockpile – including arbitrating the cost of obsolescence.^{[219]}^{[218]} Stock of surgical masks and FFP2 masks in late 2019 had dropped to 140 million and zero units respectively.^{[218]}
Thenhealth minister Agnès Buzyn declared on 26 January that there would be no shortage of masks in France during the outbreak.^{[219]} Later on 26 February, Jérôme Salomon, the French Directeur général de la Santé, declared during a debate by the French Senate that "A mask shortage is not a subject".^{[66]} However, health professionals complained that they were illequipped to face the crisis, due to inadequate stocks of protective equipment.^{[219]} On 3 March, with France still facing a shortage, President Macron commandeered all masks produced and stored in the country for distribution to health professionals and people who had contracted the virus.^{[218]}^{[220]}
France was subsequently accused of seizing medical equipment intended for other nations. On 5 March 2020, French authorities confiscated four million masks from the Swedish health care company Mölnlycke, which were in a distribution centre in Lyon and destined for Spain and Italy. Two weeks later, after pressure from the Swedish government, France released the masks, allowing two million of them through, with the rest remaining in France either to be used there or for reexport.^{[221]} Mölnlycke estimated that a total of "six million masks were seized by the French. All had been contracted for, including a million masks each for France, Italy and Spain. The rest were destined for Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal and Switzerland."^{[222]}
On 27 April 2020, it was revealed by Libération that, contrary to government claims in March, a change of doctrine was not the main cause of the mask shortage, and that the government had been fully informed as early as 2018 that strategic reserves were depleted.^{[223]}
On 8 May 2020, the government announced that 200 million masks per week would be available starting on 11 May: 100 million for medical workers and 100 million for the general public.^{[224]}
Hydroxychloroquine controversyEdit
On 17 March 2020, Didier Raoult of the Mediterranean infectious and tropical disease institute in Marseille and member of the scientific council advising the government announced in a YouTube video entitled "Coronavirus: endgame!” that a trial by his team involving 24 patients supported the claim that hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin were effective in treating COVID19.^{[225]}^{[226]}^{[227]} The design of the study as well as its conclusions are controversial and generally viewed as flawed and inconclusive.^{[228]}^{[227]} Raoult has nevertheless offered testing of those with symptoms at his institute and prescribed hydroxychloroquine for those who tested positive.^{[228]} The French Health Minister, Olivier Véran, announced that "new tests will now go ahead to evaluate the results of Raoult, to independently replicate the trials and ensure the findings are scientifically robust, before any possible decision might be made to roll any treatment out to the wider public".^{[229]}^{[230]}
On 30 March, hospitals reported that there had been two dozen cases with three deaths of individuals who were suspected of selfmedication with Plaquenil – a brand name for hydroxychloroquine. Drug safety agency (ANSM) warned against potentially fatal side effects, notably cardiac arrhythmia and heart attack. The agency banned its use, even with prescriptions, outside of hospitals, and in clinical trials, while stepping up its surveillance.^{[231]}^{[231]}
Raoult later resigned from the committee, and defended chloroquine as a drug that has been safely used for 80 years.^{[40]}
Chinese Embassy articleEdit
In midApril, the Chinese embassy published an online article entitled "Restoring distorted facts – Observations of a Chinese diplomat posted to Paris", which criticised western countries' slow response and accused workers at nursing homes in France of "abandoning their posts overnight … and leaving their residents to die of hunger and disease". French Foreign Minister JeanYves Le Drian summoned the Chinese ambassador, and said that the remarks were not in line with the "quality of the bilateral relationship" between France and China.^{[232]}
Cooperation with neighbouring statesEdit
On 29 February 2020, Monaco announced the first COVID19 case, a man who was admitted to the Princess Grace Hospital Centre, then transferred to Nice University Hospital in France.^{[166]} Also on 29 February 2020, three French nationals and one Italian resident of Ain were being hospitalised in Lausanne or other places in Switzerland.^{[233]}
On 22 March 2020, Switzerland announced that three hospitals near the Alsace region had agreed to take in any Frenchbased patients after Alsace officials made a request for assistance.^{[234]} Patients from Grand Est were also taken into hospitals in BadenWürttemberg, RhinelandPalatinate, Saarland, and Hesse in Germany.
Up to 1 April 2020 over 100 COVID19 patients from Alsace had been transferred for treatment to Germany, Luxembourg, and Switzerland.^{[235]}
StatisticsEdit
This section's factual accuracy is disputed. (April 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) 
(Source: official daily statistics from Minister of Health^{[3]})
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Location statisticsEdit
Death excess by town densityEdit
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Death by administrative regionEdit
Apart from the Petite Couronne,^{[236]} cases have been detected either by a late discovery^{[clarification needed]} or by a local infection in the following departments: Gironde,^{[237]} HauteSavoie,^{[51]} BasRhin,^{[63]} Vald'Oise,^{[145]} Hérault,^{[153]} Finistère,^{[135]} Lyon Metropolis,^{[123]} Côted'Or,^{[130]} AlpesMaritimes,^{[163]} SeineMaritime,^{[149]} LoireAtlantique,^{[238]} Ain,^{[239]} Landes,^{[69]} CharenteMaritime,^{[240]} Mayenne,^{[162]}^{[162]} IlleetVilaine,^{[241]} Morbihan,^{[133]} HautRhin,^{[140]} Eure,^{[150]} Sarthe,^{[161]} Gard,^{[157]} Drôme,^{[127]} SaôneetLoire,^{[132]} all the departments of the region HautsdeFrance, except the Nord,^{[242]} and in the overseas territories of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin.^{[177]}
Template:COVID19 pandemic data/France medical cases
Simulation statisticsEdit
Simulation studies helped convince the government that taking no action would result in large numbers of civilian casualties. In such a case between 30,000 and 100,000 more ICU beds would be required in the hospitals. In France there are 5,000 reanimation service beds and 7,364 ICU beds. These simulations were provided by Neil Ferguson, epidemiologist at the Imperial College London.^{[243]}
See alsoEdit
ReferencesEdit
 ↑ ^{1.0} ^{1.1} "Santé Publique France" (in French). 10 April 2020.
 ↑ ^{2.0} ^{2.1} ^{2.2} ^{2.3} "info coronavirus covid19". Gouvernment.fr (in French). Retrieved 18 August 2020.
 ↑ ^{3.0} ^{3.1} ^{3.2} ^{3.3} ^{3.4} ^{3.5} "COVID19 en France" (in French). Santé Publique France. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
 ↑ ^{4.0} ^{4.1} Jacob, Etienne (24 January 2020). "Coronavirus: trois premiers cas confirmés en France". Le Figaro (in French).
 ↑ BernardStoecklin, S (13 February 2020). "First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) in France: surveillance, investigations and control measures, January 2020". Eurosurveillance. 25 (6): 2000094. doi:10.2807/15607917.ES.2020.25.6.2000094. PMC 7029452. PMID 32070465.
 ↑ ^{6.0} ^{6.1} "Wuhan virus: France confirms fourth case of coronavirus in elderly Chinese tourist". The Straits Times. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
 ↑ ^{7.0} ^{7.1} "First coronavirus death confirmed in Europe". BBC News. 15 February 2020. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
 ↑ "Support efforts begin across Japan to help coronavirushit Wuhan". Japan Times. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
 ↑ Ganley, Elaine (15 February 2020). "France announces 1st death of virus patient outside Asia". Associated Press. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
 ↑ ^{10.0} ^{10.1} ^{10.2} ^{10.3} ^{10.4} "Coronavirus : la " bombe atomique " du rassemblement évangélique de Mulhouse". Le Point. 28 March 2020.
 ↑ ^{11.0} ^{11.1} ^{11.2} ^{11.3} ^{11.4} ^{11.5} ^{11.6} "ENQUETE FRANCEINFO. "La majorité des personnes étaient contaminées" : de la Corse à l'outremer, comment le rassemblement évangélique de Mulhouse a diffusé le coronavirus dans toute la France". Franceinfo. 28 March 2020.
 ↑ ^{12.0} ^{12.1} Irish, John (4 May 2020). "After retesting samples, French hospital discovers COVID19 case from December". Reuters. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
 ↑ ^{13.0} ^{13.1} "SARSCOV2 was already spreading in France in late December 2019". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 55 (6): 106006. June 2020. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106006. Preprint on 3 May 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus: Spain and France announce sweeping restrictions". BBC News. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
 ↑ "France imposes 15day lockdown as part of emergency coronavirus response". The Independent. 16 March 2020.
 ↑ ^{16.0} ^{16.1} ^{16.2} "REPLAY. Coronavirus : prolongation du confinement jusqu'au 11 mai, tests, masques... Revivez l'allocution d'Emmanuel Macron". France Info. 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
 ↑ Macron: coronavirus is Europe's 'moment of truth' 16 April 2020, Financial Times. Retrieved 18 April 2020
 ↑ "France to extend coronavirus emergency for two months". Al Jazeera. 2 May 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus was present in France in December, doctor claims". Telegraph Media Group Limited. 4 May 2020.
 ↑ En France, le Covid19 aurait contaminé moins de 5 % de la population, loin de l’immunité collective 13 May 2020 Le Monde. Retrieved 15 May 2020
 ↑ "Macron pension reform: Strike continues for second day". BBC News. 6 December 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
 ↑ Amaro, Silvia. "France's worst strike in decades enters a second day". CNBC. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
 ↑ "French transport strike now longest in 50 years". 2 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
 ↑ Coronavirus: la réforme des retraites suspendue annonce Macron 16 March 2020 HuffPost. Retrieved 12 April 2020
 ↑ Elsevier. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
 ↑ Reynolds, Matt (4 March 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 13570978. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : "Le risque d'introduction en France est faible mais il ne peut être exclu", selon Agnès Buzyn". Le Parisien. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : un premier cas de Covid19 remontant au 2 décembre confirmé en Alsace". Franceinfo. 7 May 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : un premier cas dès le mois de novembre en Alsace". France Bleu. 7 May 2020.
 ↑ "Point du 23 janvier 2020". French Minister of Health. 23 January 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
Le risque d'introduction est faible mais ne peut pas être exclu.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : Air France suspend ses vols vers Wuhan et réduit ceux vers Pékin et Shanghai". Europe 1. 29 January 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus en France : le parcours des trois patients". France Info (in French). 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : en France, "les risques de propagation du virus dans la population sont très faibles" selon Agnès Buzyn". BFM TV. 24 January 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus outbreak: First confirmed cases in Europe as France declares two infections". Sky News. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : deux premières contaminations confirmées en France". Le Monde (in French). 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
 ↑ "Covid19 : y atil une pénurie de masques de protection pour les professionnels de santé?". Libération. 27 January 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus: Agnès Buzyn estime "totalement inutile" le port de masque pour les noncontaminés". BFM TV. 26 January 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
 ↑ "Cinquième case averé". L'Express (in French). 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus: un sixième cas confirmé". Le Parisien (in French). 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
 ↑ ^{40.0} ^{40.1} "Le consensus, c'est Pétain" : le professeur Raoult s'en prend au Conseil scientifique et à sa gestion du Covid19 30 April 2020 France Info. Retrieved 30 April 2020
 ↑ "Masques: les preuves d'un mensonge d'Etat". Mediapart (in French). 17 March 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
Le 24 janvier, la Direction générale de la santé (DGS) saisit l’agence Santé publique France (SPF), sous la tutelle du ministère, pour faire un inventaire des stocks de matériel médical. Le 30 janvier, elle lui demande d'acquérir « dès que possible » 1,1 million de masques FFP2 seulement, selon un document obtenu par Mediapart
 ↑ "L'étonnant départ de la conseillère santé d'Emmanuel Macron". Mediapart (in French). 17 March 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
Conseillère santé du président de la République depuis le début du quinquennat, Marie Fontanel a quitté l’Élysée le 31 janvier, alors que l’OMS venait de déclarer « l’urgence de santé publique de portée internationale ». Elle n’a été remplacée qu’un mois plus tard. Cette vacance interroge de nouveau sur la gestion de la crise sanitaire par le pouvoir, au moment où la menace pandémique se profilait déjà.
 ↑ "Confirmed: All Schengen Countries, but France, Have Suspended Visa Issuance in China". Mediapart. 1 February 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : 5 nouveaux cas confirmés en France". Le Figaro (in French). 8 February 2020. Archived from the original on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
 ↑ AFP, avec (8 February 2020). "Coronavirus. La ministre de la Santé Agnès Buzyn annonce cinq nouveaux cas en France". OuestFrance (in French). Archived from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
 ↑ Spiteri, Gianfranco; Fielding, James; Diercke, Michaela; Campese, Christine; Enouf, Vincent; Gaymard, Alexandre; Bella, Antonino; Sognamiglio, Paola; Sierra Moros, Maria José; Riutort, Antonio Nicolau; Demina, Yulia V. (5 March 2020). "First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) in the WHO European Region, 24 January to 21 February 2020". Eurosurveillance. 25 (9). doi:10.2807/15607917.ES.2020.25.9.2000178. ISSN 1025496X. PMC 7068164. PMID 32156327.
 ↑ BFMTV. "Coronavirus: le ministère de la Santé annonce un 12e cas d'infection confirmé en France" (in French). BFMTV. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : les quatre derniers patients en France sont hospitalisés à Lyon et SaintEtienne". France 3 AuvergneRhôneAlpes (in French). Retrieved 19 February 2020.
 ↑ AFP, avec (24 February 2020). "Coronavirus. Une 11e guérison en France, " plus aucun malade hospitalisé "". OuestFrance (in French). Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
 ↑ "Santé. Coronavirus : qui sont les 38 cas contaminés en France ?". dna.fr (in French). Retrieved 27 February 2020.
 ↑ ^{51.0} ^{51.1} ^{51.2} "EN DIRECT – Coronavirus : un 18e cas en France, l'épouse de l'homme hospitalisé à Annecy". LCI (in French). Retrieved 26 February 2020.
 ↑ "Le Morbihan " attend de savoir " qui est à l'origine des cas de coronavirus". 20 Minutes (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
 ↑ "Confinement en France : CrépyenValois, cette petite ville de l'Oise où tout a commencé". Sud Ouest. 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus, dall'Italia si spande in Europa. Conte: "Inaccettabili limitazioni agli italiani". Ma molti Paesi prendono misure". la Repubblica (in Italian). 25 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
 ↑ "France reports two new coronavirus infections, one returning from Italy". Reuters. 25 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
 ↑ "DIRECT. Coronavirus : deux nouveaux cas identifiés en France". la Depeche (in French). Retrieved 27 February 2020.
 ↑ "HauteSavoie. Coronavirus : l'épouse du patient hospitalisé à Annecy également infectée". le Dauphine (in French). Retrieved 27 February 2020.
 ↑ ^{58.0} ^{58.1} "DIRECT. Covid19 : le service de réanimation de l'hôpital de Creil, où a été hospitalisé le patient décédé, ferme pendant 14 jours". Franceinfo (in French). 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
 ↑ "France reports second coronavirus death, Italian link in another case". Reuters. 26 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
 ↑ "France reports first citizen to die from coronavirus as three new cases confirmed". France 24. 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
 ↑ ^{61.0} ^{61.1} "Santé. Un premier cas de coronavirus confirmé en Alsace". dna.fr (in French). Retrieved 26 February 2020.
 ↑ ^{62.0} ^{62.1} ^{62.2} "Covid19 : un mort et deux nouveaux cas recensés en France". Franceinfo (in French). 26 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
 ↑ ^{63.0} ^{63.1} ^{63.2} ^{63.3} "France reports first citizen to die from coronavirus as three new cases confirmed". France 24. 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : originaires de l'Oise, un homme est mort à Paris, un autre hospitalisé à Amiens dans un "état grave"". France 3 HautsdeFrance (in French). Retrieved 27 February 2020.
 ↑ "Un patient atteint de coronavirus en réanimation à Amiens". Courrier picard (in French). 26 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
 ↑ ^{66.0} ^{66.1} "Coronavirus : " Il n'y pas de sujet de pénurie " de masques, selon le directeur général de la Santé". Public Sénat (in French). 26 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
Le directeur général de la Santé a précisé que les stocks de l’État existaient, et que ces derniers seraient mobilisés en temps utile. « Il y a des stocks stratégiques importants détenus par Santé publique France sur les masques chirurgicaux. On n’a pas d’inquiétude.
 ↑ "EN DIRECT – Coronavirus : le nombre de cas confirmés en France passe de 18 à 38". LCI (in French). Retrieved 27 February 2020.
 ↑ Marshall, Jordan; Rogers, Dave; LorenzatoLloyd, Alice. "Mipim says show is still on as first coronavirus case confirmed in Cannes". Building. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
 ↑ ^{69.0} ^{69.1} "Landes : premier cas de coronavirus confirmé dans le département". SudOuest.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
 ↑ Raphaëlle Bacqué; Ariane Chemin (27 March 2020). "Deux mille pèlerins, cinq jours de prière et un virus : à Mulhouse, le scénario d'une contagion". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 31 March 2020.
 ↑ ^{71.0} ^{71.1} "Coronavirus : polémique sur le foyer de Mulhouse qui a essaimé en LotetGaronne". ladepeche.fr. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
 ↑ "Mulhouse : sept cas de coronavirus après un rassemblement religieux à Bourtzwiller" [Mulhouse: seven cases of coronavirus after a religious gathering in Bourtzwiller]. France Bleu (in French). 3 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
 ↑ "Alsace : Un médecin de Bernwiller contaminé par le coronavirus". 3 March 2020.
 ↑ "DIRECT. Coronavirus : le CIO n'évoque "ni annulation ni report" des JO de Tokyo" [DIRECT. Coronavirus: the IOC does not mention "neither cancellation nor postponement" of the Tokyo Olympics]. Journal L'Union (in French). 4 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
 ↑ Catherine Lama (4 March 2020). "Coronavirus : cinq cas à SaintLaurent du Maroni" [Coronavirus: five cases in SaintLaurent du Maroni] (in French). Guyana: FranceTV. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : deux cas confirmés en LotetGaronne" [Coronavirus: two cases confirmed in LotetGaronne]. SudOuest.fr (in French). Retrieved 5 March 2020.
 ↑ "Trois premiers cas du nouveau coronavirus confirmés en Corse" [Three first cases of the new coronavirus confirmed in Corsica]. 20 Minutes (in French). Retrieved 5 March 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus EN DIRECT : Trois premiers cas dans les HautesAlpes… Les écoles ne fermeront pas en cas de stade 3…" [Coronavirus LIVE: Three first cases in the HautesAlpes… Schools will not close in case of stage 3…]. 20 Minutes (in French). Retrieved 5 March 2020.
 ↑ Ronan Tsorière (6 March 2020). "Coronavirus : comment le HautRhin et la ville de Mulhouse font face à l'explosion de l'épidémie" [Coronavirus: how the HautRhin and the city of Mulhouse are coping with the explosion of the epidemic]. Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 6 March 2020.(subscription required)
 ↑ Florence Grandon (6 March 2020). "Coronavirus dans le HautRhin : la totalité des écoles, collèges, lycées, crèches fermés lundi 9 mars pour 15 jours" [Coronavirus in Haut Rhine: all schools, colleges, high schools, nurseries closed Monday March 9 for 15 days]. france3regions.francetvinfo.fr (in French). Retrieved 21 March 2020.
 ↑ "L'Armée de l'air au service des Français" [Air Force at the service of French]. defense.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : "Une cinquantaine de personnels mobilisés" pour accueillir des Français rapatriés à CarryleRouet, selon le préfet de la région PACA" [Coronavirus: "About fifty staff mobilised" to accommodate French repatriated to CarryleRouet, according to the prefect of the PACA region]. Franceinfo (in French). 30 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : les premiers Français rapatriés de Chine ont atterri près de Marseille" [Coronavirus: the first French returnees from China landed near Marseille]. Le Monde (in French). 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : ce que l'on sait sur la traque du "patient zéro" dans l'Oise" [Coronavirus: what we know about tracking e of "patient zero" in the Oise]. L'Express (in French). 2 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : un 2e avion a décollé pour rapatrier d'autres Français de Wuhan" [Coronavirus: a 2nd plane took off to repatriate other French people from Wuhan]. RTL.fr (in French). Retrieved 29 February 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : 3e vague de rapatriement de Wuhan, 38 Français attendus dimanche" [Coronavirus: 3rd wave of repatriation from Wuhan, 38 French expected on Sunday]. Le Parisien (in French). 7 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
 ↑ "Les Français rapatriés de Chine seront accueillis dans le Calvados" [French returnees from China will be welcomed in Calvados]. France Bleu (in French). 20 February 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : ce que l'on sait du 4e vol de Français rapatriés de Wuhan" [Coronavirus: what we know about 4th flight of French returnees from Wuhan]. LCI (in French). Retrieved 29 February 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus: 120 gendarmes repatriated from Spain" [Coronavirus : 120 gendarmes rapatriés depuis l'Espagne]. europe1.fr (in French). Europe 1 Digital. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus: 120 gendarmes and 20 Tulle supervisors confined to Spain" [=Coronavirus : 120 élèves gendarmes et 20 encadrants de Tulle confinés en Espagne]. lepopulaire.fr (in French). Groupe CenterFrance. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
 ↑ ^{91.0} ^{91.1} ^{91.2} "French voters shun elections, enjoy sunshine despite coronavirus restrictions". Reuters. 16 March 2020.
 ↑ "French health minister to run for Paris mayor after sex scandal sinks previous candidate". France 24. 16 February 2020.
 ↑ "Vald'Oise. Coronavirus : des assesseurs ayant tenu des bureaux de vote à Montmagny seraient infectés par le Covid19  La Gazette du Val d'Oise". Actu.fr. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
 ↑ Recueilli par JeanPierre TENOUX. "Elections municipales  L'assesseur croit avoir été infecté dans son bureau de vote". Estrepublicain.fr. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus. Des assesseurs infectés, une candidate aux élections municipales porte plainte  Actu Lyon". Actu.fr. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
 ↑ "Emmanuel Macron annonce l'interdiction des déplacements nonessentiels dès mardi midi". Marianne. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : Muriel Pénicaud sermonne les tireauflanc parmi les entreprises". Marianne. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
 ↑ "Confinement et BTP : le conflit entre gouvernement et entreprises sur le maintien des chantiers s'apaise". Le Monde. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
 ↑ "BTP: le volontarisme du gouvernement se heurte au réel des chantiers". Mediapart. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
Après cinq jours de violent bras de fer, le gouvernement a conclu samedi un accord avec le secteur du BTP ouvrant la voie à une reprise de certains chantiers malgré la crise du coronavirus.
 ↑ Ban on gatherings of more than 5000 people in an enclosed space
 "Arrêté du 4 mars 2020 portant diverses mesures relatives à la lutte contre la propagation du virus covid19". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance.
 "Décret n° 2020191 du 4 mars 2020 relatif à l'entrée en vigueur immédiate d'un arrêté". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance.
 ↑ Ban on all gatherings of more than 1000 people
 "Arrêté du 9 mars 2020 portant diverses mesures relatives à la lutte contre la propagation du virus covid19". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance.
 "Décret n° 2020226 du 9 mars 2020 relatif à l'entrée en vigueur immédiate d'un arrêté". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance.
 ↑ ^{102.0} ^{102.1}
 "Arrêté du 13 mars 2020 portant diverses mesures relatives à la lutte contre la propagation du virus covid19". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance.
 "Décret n° 2020226 du 9 mars 2020 relatif à l'entrée en vigueur immédiate d'un arrêté". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance.
 ↑ ^{103.0} ^{103.1} ^{103.2} ^{103.3} ^{103.4} ^{103.5}
 "Décret n° 2020293 du 23 mars 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance.
 "Décret n° 2020314 du 25 mars 2020 complétant le décret n° 2020293 du 23 mars 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance.
 "Décret n° 2020344 du 27 mars 2020 complétant le décret n° 2020293 du 23 mars 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance.
 "Décret n° 2020423 du 14 avril 2020 complétant le décret n° 2020293 du 23 mars 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance.
 ↑ ^{104.0} ^{104.1} ^{104.2} ^{104.3}
 "Arrêté du 14 mars 2020 portant diverses mesures relatives à la lutte contre la propagation du virus covid19".
 "Décret n° 2020249 du 14 mars 2020 relatif à l'entrée en vigueur immédiate de deux arrêtés".
 "Arrêté du 15 mars 2020 complétant l'arrêté du 14 mars 2020 portant diverses mesures relatives à la lutte contre la propagation du virus covid19".
 "Arrêté du 16 mars 2020 complétant l'arrêté du 14 mars 2020 portant diverses mesures relatives à la lutte contre la propagation du virus covid19".
 "Arrêté du 17 mars 2020 complétant l'arrêté du 14 mars 2020 portant diverses mesures relatives à la lutte contre la propagation du virus covid19".
 "Arrêté du 19 mars 2020 complétant l'arrêté du 14 mars 2020 portant diverses mesures relatives à la lutte contre la propagation du virus covid19".
 "Arrêté du 23 mars 2020 prescrivant les mesures d'organisation et de fonctionnement du système de santé nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : Édouard Philippe annonce la fermeture des lieux publics " nonessentiels "" (in French).
 ↑ Imperial College Covid19 Response Team (16 March 2020). "Impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce Covid19 mortality and healthcare demand" (PDF). Imperial College London. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
 ↑ Ryan O'Hare, L. van Elsland (30 March 2020). "Coronavirus measures may have already averted up to 120,000 deaths across Europe". Imperial College London. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
 ↑ "Décret n° 2020279 du 19 mars 2020 modifiant le décret n° 2020260 du 16 mars 2020 portant réglementation des déplacements dans le cadre de la lutte contre la propagation du virus covid19  Legifrance".
 ↑ "Décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020545COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 11 mai 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance. URL–wikilink conflict (help)
 ↑ "Décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020548COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 11 mai 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance. URL–wikilink conflict (help)
 ↑ "Décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020645COVID19 pandemic in France]] complétant le décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020548COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 11 mai 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance. URL–wikilink conflict (help)
 ↑ "Décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020663COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 31 mai 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance. URL–wikilink conflict (help)
 ↑ "Décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020724COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 14 juin 2020 modifiant le décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020663COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 31 mai 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance. URL–wikilink conflict (help)
 ↑ "Décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020759COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 21 juin 2020 modifiant le décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020663COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 31 mai 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance. URL–wikilink conflict (help)
 ↑ "Décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020860COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 10 juillet 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans les territoires sortis de l'état d'urgence sanitaire et dans ceux où il a été prorogé". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance. URL–wikilink conflict (help)
 ↑ "Décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020884COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 17 juillet 2020 modifiant le décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020860COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 10 juillet 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans les territoires sortis de l'état d'urgence sanitaire et dans ceux où il a été prorogé". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance. URL–wikilink conflict (help)
 ↑ "Décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 1035COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 13 août 2020 modifiant le décret #[[Category:Pages using number sign template with unknown parameters1 = 2020860COVID19 pandemic in France]] du 10 juillet 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid19 dans les territoires sortis de l'état d'urgence sanitaire et dans ceux où il a été prorogé". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance. URL–wikilink conflict (help)
 ↑ ^{118.0} ^{118.1} "[DIRECT] DIRECT. Coronavirus : deux nouveaux cas de coronavirus en France". ladepeche.fr (in French). Retrieved 25 February 2020.
 ↑ "HauteSavoie. Le cas de coronavirus avéré dans la région est hospitalisé à Annecy". ledauphine.com (in French). Retrieved 26 February 2020.
 ↑ "Santé. HauteSavoie : le directeur général de la santé confirme 4 cas de coronavirus à la Balme de Sillingy". ledauphine.com (in French). Retrieved 27 February 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus Covid19 : de nouveaux cas hospitalisés à l'hôpital d'Annecy". France 3 AuvergneRhôneAlpes (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
 ↑ ^{122.0} ^{122.1} Faure, Anthony (2 March 2020). "Coronavirus : 4 cas à Lyon, 0 à Villefranche pour l'instant". lyoncapitale.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
 ↑ ^{123.0} ^{123.1} BFMTV. "Coronavirus: ce que l'on sait des 38 cas confirmés en France" (in French). BFMTV. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
 ↑ "Ain. Coronavirus: rentrés d'Italie, deux Aindinois contaminés". leprogres.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
 ↑ "Ain. Coronavirus : un habitant du Pays de Gex infecté sans gravité et hospitalisé à Lausanne". ledauphine.com (in French). Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : plusieurs cas confirmés dans l'Ain, à DivonnelesBains et FerneyVoltaire, sans gravité". France 3 AuvergneRhôneAlpes (in French). Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
 ↑ ^{127.0} ^{127.1} "Un premier cas de coronavirus dans la Drôme, une Nyonsaise de 89 ans". France Bleu (in French). 3 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus Covid19 : quatre nouveaux cas en HauteSavoie dont trois liés au cluster de la BalmedeSillingy". France 3 AuvergneRhôneAlpes (in French). Retrieved 3 March 2020.
 ↑ "BourgogneFrancheComté. Cinq nouveaux cas de coronavirus à Dijon". estrepublicain.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
 ↑ ^{130.0} ^{130.1} "En direct. Coronavirus : quatre cas confirmés à Dijon". bienpublic.com (in French). Retrieved 27 February 2020.
 ↑ "CORONAVIRUS : L'Agence Régionale de Santé annonce un cinquième cas pris en charge au CHU de Dijon". infosdijon.com (in French). Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
 ↑ ^{132.0} ^{132.1} France, Centre (3 March 2020). "Covid19 – Cinq nouveaux cas de coronavirus confirmés en Bourgogne FrancheComté". lyonne.fr. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
 ↑ ^{133.0} ^{133.1} ^{133.2} ^{133.3} "Coronavirus en Bretagne : l'Agence Régionale de Santé confirme 19 cas, la préfecture prend des mesures de restrictions". France 3 Bretagne (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
 ↑ "Cas de coronavirus à Brest : ce que l'on sait ce jeudi soir". Le Telegramme (in French). 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
 ↑ ^{135.0} ^{135.1} PAISTEL, Coline (27 February 2020). "Coronavirus. Un premier cas en Bretagne à Brest". OuestFrance (in French). Retrieved 27 February 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : quatre cas confirmés en Bretagne [Direct]". Le Télégramme (in French). 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus en Bretagne : premier décès dans le Morbihan [Direct]". Le Telegramme (in French). 2 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
 ↑ "[VIDEO] Coronavirus : un quatrième mort en France, un homme de 92 ans dans le Morbihan". France 3 Bretagne (in French). Retrieved 3 March 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : informations, recommandations et mesures sanitaires  La préfecture et les services de l'État en région Bretagne". prefecturesregions.gouv.fr.
 ↑ ^{140.0} ^{140.1} "Santé. Coronavirus : onze cas identifiés dans le Grand Est, dont huit en Alsace". dna.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
 ↑ "Nancy. Coronavirus : un troisième cas avéré à Nancy". estrepublicain.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
 ↑ ^{142.0} ^{142.1} "Coronavirus : un nouveau décès en France, 191 cas de contamination confirmés". France Bleu (in French). 2 March 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : deux nouveaux cas en France annonce le directeur général de la Santé". France Bleu (in French). 25 February 2020. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
 ↑ "DIRECT. Covid19 : le nombre de cas confirmés en France passe de 18 à 38, annonce le ministre de la Santé". Franceinfo (in French). 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
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 ↑ Mari, Elsa (29 February 2020). "Coronavirus : 3 personnels soignants contaminés à Paris à l'hôpital Tenon". Le Parisien (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus en SeineSaintDenis : deux cas identifiés dans une famille de Montreuil". France Bleu (in French). 2 March 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
 ↑ "International Women's Day Marked Across the World". VOA News. 8 March 2020.
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 ↑ "CharenteMaritime : un homme contaminé par le coronavirus a été transporté au CHU de Poitiers". France 3 NouvelleAquitaine (in French). Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
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 ↑ "Coronavirus à Montpellier : deux autres cas avérés, dont l'épouse du malade déjà infecté". actu.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : l'enfant contaminé à Montpellier a très peu de symptômes". France Bleu (in French). 2 March 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
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 ↑ "Trois nouveaux malades du coronavirus ce samedi dans les AlpesMaritime". NiceMatin (in French). 29 February 2020. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
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 ↑ "Confinement : Nice, Mulhouse, Perpignan... Ces communes qui ont instauré un couvrefeu". L'Express (in French). 23 March 2020.
 ↑ "Five coronavirus cases confirmed in French Guiana March 4, 2020". Antigua Observer. 4 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
 ↑ "Un premier mort du Covid19 en Guyane". France Guyane (in French). Retrieved 20 April 2020.
 ↑ "Update on the situation on March 26". Prefecture of Guadeloupe. 26 March 2020.
 ↑ Samyde, JeanClaude (5 March 2020). "Coronavirus : deux cas confirmés en Martinique". France Info.
 ↑ "Coronavirus Covid19 : un premier décès lié au virus et 15 patients touchés en Martinique". Martinique la 1ère (in French). Retrieved 21 March 2020.
 ↑ Andjilani, Toufaili (14 March 2020). "Mayotte enregistre un premier cas de Coronavirus". Mayotte 1ère (in French).
 ↑ "Coronavirus COVID19 : 12 nouveaux cas confirmés à Mayotte : 94 au total". Mayotte la 1ère (in French). Retrieved 31 March 2020.
 ↑ Philippon, Laura (11 March 2020). "Un premier cas de coronavirus confirmé à La Réunion". France Info (in French).
 ↑ "Coronavirus: New cases in Tahiti, New Caledonia". RNZ. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
 ↑ ^{177.0} ^{177.1} ^{177.2} "Coronavirus : premiers cas confirmés en Outremer, à SaintMartin et SaintBarth". Polynésie la 1ère (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : plusieurs cas suspects à bord du porteavions français CharlesdeGaulle" [Coronavirus: several suspected cases on board the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle] (in French). France 24. 8 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
 ↑ "French aircraft carrier heads home early due to possible COVID19 cases". Reuters. 8 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
 ↑ ^{180.0} ^{180.1} "Coronavirus : 50 cas de contamination à bord du "CharlesdeGaulle", trois marins évacués". Le Parisien (in French). 10 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
 ↑ "50 crew members of France's Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier test positive for coronavirus". Radio France Internationale. 10 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.}
 ↑ "France Reports 50 COVID19 Cases Aboard Aircraft Carrier". The New York Times. Reuters. 10 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
 ↑ Coronavirus : bilan définitif de 1 046 cas sur le porteavions "CharlesdeGaulle", près de la moitié sont asymptomatiques 18 April 2020 France Info. Retrieved 20 April 2020
 ↑ "France. Le Covid19 se propage sur le "Charles de Gaulle"". 9 April 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : le porteavions français "CharlesdeGaulle", et ses 50 cas de Covid19 à bord, est attendu à Toulon dimanche aprèsmidi" (in French). Retrieved 12 April 2020.
 ↑ www.europe1.fr writes 'entre le 13 et le 16 mars'
 ↑ Willsher, Kim; Sabbagh, Dan (16 April 2020). "Inquiry after 668 of French aircraft carrier's crew catch coronavirus". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
 ↑ "C'était "faites au mieux les gars !" " : le récit de la contamination du " CharlesdeGaulle". Le Monde. 18 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
Des critiques reprochent aux amiraux de ne pas avoir interrompu plus tôt la mission du navire et de ses bateaux d’escorte, à bord desquels 1 081 cas positifs au coronavirus ont été identifiés.
 ↑ "Coronavirus: contaminations sur le CharlesdeGaulle, deux enquêtes en cours". Radio France Internationale. 18 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
Auditionnée par la commission Défense de l’Assemblée nationale, la ministre des Armées Florence Parly a indiqué aux députés que les enquêtes destinées à faire la lumière sur l’origine de cette contamination seraient rendues publiques.
 ↑ "French fashion label Agnes B cancels Paris show due to coronavirus". Reuters. 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
 ↑ "Paris halfmarathon canceled because of coronavirus". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 29 February 2020. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
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 ↑ "Coronavirus : ce qu'il faut retenir de la journée du 13 mars". Les Échos. France. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020..
 ↑ "Communiqué de la LFP" (in French). lfp.fr. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
 ↑ "Coronavirus : Château de Versailles, Tour Eiffel, Louvre, Centre Pompidou, Musée d'Orsay, Olympia, Châtelet, Théâtre des ChampsElysées... des fermetures en cascade". Franceinfo (in French). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
 ↑ ROCHARD, Benoit (13 March 2020). "Montsoreau. Coronavirus : le château fermé à partir du samedi 14 mars". Courrier de l'Ouest (in French). Retrieved 22 March 2020.
 ↑ "Marseille : le Mucem ferme ses portes". LaProvence.com (in French). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
 ↑ World news story French personal travel waiver certificate Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 4 April 2020
 ↑ Man in France jailed for flouting confinement rules "A man in northern France has been sentenced to two months in prison for violating confinement rules eight times in five days." 2 April 2020 www.connexionfrance.com. Retrieved 4 April 2020
 ↑ 500.000 amendes pour nonrespect du confinement 7 April 2020 www.lerepairedesmotards.comaccessed 30 April 2020
 ↑ "Coronavirus. Scolarité, élections, mesures à l'hôpital... Ce qu'il faut savoir en Mayenne". OuestFrance. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020..
 ↑ "Global layoffs surge as 6.6m Americans file jobless claims". Financial Times. 2 April 2020.
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 ↑ "Police clash with residents in Paris suburbs amid lockdown". France 24. 20 April 2020.
 ↑ "Violence flares in tense Paris suburbs as heavyhanded lockdown stirs 'explosive cocktail'". France 24. 21 April 2020.
 ↑ "French motorcyclist whose crash fuelled riots urges calm amid more unrest". Reuters. 22 April 2020.
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 ↑ "French bus driver dies after 'face mask attack'". RTE News. 10 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
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 ↑ Hans Rustad (11 July 2020). "De siktede for drapet på bussjåføren: Mohamed C., Mohammed A., Moussa B. og Selim Z." (in Norwegian). document.no. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
 ↑ France: Bus driver dies after 'attack over face masks' in Bayonne
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 ↑ "L'Etat réquisitionne les stocks de masques de protection" [French government commandeers stocks of protective masks]. L'Obs.
 ↑ Kouimtsidis, Dimitris (3 April 2020). "France forced to return face masks it confiscated from Spain a few weeks ago after pressure from the Swedish Government". The Olive Press. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
 ↑ Marlowe, Lara (30 March 2020). "Coronavirus: European solidarity sidelined as French interests take priority". The Irish Times. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
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 ↑ "Coronavirus : le gouvernement promet 200 millions de masques par semaine dès lundi". DNA.fr (in French). 8 May 2020.
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 ↑ "HauteSavoie. Coronavirus : depuis sa chambre d'hôpital à Annecy, "pour moi il n'y a pas de danger"". ledauphine.com (in French). Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
 ↑ Bally, Gaetan (22 March 2020). "Swiss hospitals to take French coronavirus patients". swissinfo.ch (in French). Retrieved 31 March 2020.
 ↑ Antonio Fumagalli: "So kam Frankreich zu den Plätzen auf Schweizer Intensivstationen – im Gegensatz zu Italien" Neue Zürcher Zeitung 1 April 2020
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 ↑ "EN DIRECT – Coronavirus : trois personnels de santé de l'hôpital Tenon contaminés". LCI (in French). Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
 ↑ GRISOT, Paul (29 February 2020). "INFO OUESTFRANCE. Coronavirus : un premier cas détecté à Rennes, une femme de pompier hospitalisée". OuestFrance (in French). Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
 ↑ "Le coronavirus est désormais présent dans tous les HautsdeFrance". 20 Minutes (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
 ↑ Coronavirus : les simulations alarmantes des épidémiologistes pour la France 15 March 2020 Le Monde. Retrieved 15 March 2020
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